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Little Rock’s
Prevent Phase

Prevention strategy execution and building a continuous prevention improvement cycle

The Prevent Phase begins with the implementation of the community wide prevention initiatives and continues by developing a prevention improvement cycle where over time, the effectiveness of aligned prevention efforts will be evaluated using objective, population-level measures of child health and safety.

This improvement cycle will uncover, strengthen, and replicate effective prevention initiatives.

For Little Rock, we will implement our community prevention efforts and accountability to ongoing population health and safety measures will be encouraged. Collaboration around outcomes will promote realignment of effective programs, supports, services, and infrastructure.

Repeated population-level measurement of the impact of aligned services and supports will demonstrate if there is a reduction of child maltreatment and related risk factors over time.

We will also seek locations demonstrating positive deviance, or “bright spots” where the wisdom of community members can benefit others.

The purpose of these measurements is to clarify the need for new or different strategies, to expand effective programs, and continue to improve the allocation of resources.

Upon the conclusion of the Prevent phase, the city of Little Rock will have the tools and knowledge to continue measuring and improving prevention efforts, creating new social norms, building community resilience and developing the supportive infrastructure needed for improving the lives of children.

Bringing the Pap Program to all of Arkansas

Paving the way for statewide geospatial risk modeling

Dr. Dyann Daley, founder and CEO of PAP, initiated a no-cost bill that passed with wide bipartisan support in the Arkansas House and Senate in spring 2019, and was signed into law in July 2019.

This new legislation requires police precincts to add crime event addresses in the 'location' field for the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) helping to enable geospatial risk modeling statewide.

What this means for child maltreatment prevention in Arkansas

In the past, address information was removed when law enforcement agencies submitted NIBRS data to the state. This meant each police precinct had to be contacted individually to access crime data for spatial risk prediction of child maltreatment.

Now, all 17 private software vendors that support the records management systems for the law enforcement agencies submitting NIBRS data in the state of Arkansas, have programmed and are sending the address data fields, allowing the modeling of child maltreatment risk at at a much lower cost to everyone involved.

A no-cost solution for state-wide data collection is possible and simple from a legislative standpoint. Dr. Daley will continue to champion NIBRS address reporting to become the standard nationwide.

A Significant Win

for Arkansas' prevention efforts, but statewide data sharing is still needed

Given the widespread consequences and large costs associated with child maltreatment and other ACEs, it is reasonable for Arkansas state agencies to share and analyze data in a central location for the purpose of creating a comprehensive, collaborative strategic plan for prevention.

For place-based risk assessment and strategic planning, location data for ACEs and associated outcomes is required. It is not necessary to link data to a specific person for place-based analysis. Location data for some datasets is HIPAA protected and should be centralized in an agency with existing HIPAA infrastructure.

Frequently asked questions

What about data privacy?

Place-based predictive analytics identify areas of risk that are larger than a household but smaller than a neighborhood. Individual people are not identified or targeted.

What about the laws that prevent data sharing?

Often, it is not a law but agency culture that prevents data sharing. It is possible to conform to HIPAA, FERPA, and other privacy laws in the context of data sharing. In this instance, the request is for multiple state agencies to share data internally.

Will this work further stigmatize poor and minority communities?

The purpose of this work is to target prevention resources to the places that support or encourage bad outcomes for the people living there. All major demographic ethnicities are represented in high-risk places, but bias is apparent for minority groups.

Improved delivery of health and social resources to high-risk places should offer the advantage of reducing burdens and improving outcomes for people, thereby improving equity.

A Data Sharing Initiative
for the state of Arkansas

See full report here

With Child maltreatment prevention efforts relying heavily on the accessibility of child maltreatment data, PAP partnered with a Graduate Capstone team at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock’s Master of Public Administration program to research and recommend how best to move forward with a statewide data sharing initiative.

The Capstone team conducted a comparative case analysis, interviewed state agency personnel, and reviewed agency policies among public entities in the State of Arkansas.

The Team's Focus

  • To determine what identifiable federal or state laws, rules, regulations, and/or procedures are limiting cross-agency data sharing regarding location data for adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) related risk factors, protective factors, and outcomes in Arkansas for the purposes of strategic planning of prevention resource allocation.
  • To identify what organizational norms are limiting cross-agency data sharing regarding the above factors.

The Capstone Team’s

Conclusion and Recommendation

Due to the long-term negative impact that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have on individuals and the communities in which they live, it is imperative that public and private strategies and interventions be maximized to prevent ACE-related events and outcomes. Although PAP was founded for the purpose of preventing child abuse and neglect, access barriers to ACE-related data inhibits the ability of of PAP to adequately inform research and thereby disrupts achievement of its mission goals.

Data sharing barriers inhibiting PAP’s ability to adequately inform research are common big data issues prevalent in divisional bureaucratic organizational structures. In Arkansas these barriers are spread across systems managed by multiple public and private organizations making strategic alignment of stakeholders and resources a formidable task impossible for PAP to accomplish alone.

The team recommends PAP partner with the University of Arkansas Winthrop Rockefeller Institute to facilitate collaborative discussions among public and private stakeholders that will lead to transformational change in ACE-related data sharing practices in the State of Arkansas.

A mandated central record-keeping repository that is managed by the State of Arkansas and allows access to location-based ACE-related data while protecting person specific information is needed to align resources and prevent child abuse and neglect. This type of system with capability to link datasets will eliminate barriers that inhibit PAP’s ability to inform research, and identify geospatial and environmental risks associated with other community concerns.

Currently PAP is working to form partnerships and facilitate discussions to support statewide data sharing in Arkansas

PAP believes responsible data sharing is essential to help ensure the best possible outcomes for at risk children

For the city of Little Rock, the PAP program journey to date has provided expert analysis and actionable insights which we will use as we proceed through the remainder of our program, ultimately creating a continuous child maltreatment prevention cycle to help ensure the children of Little Rock, Arkansas have the opportunity to thrive.

Thank you DCFS for partnering with PAP to improve child welfare

We would like to thank the data science research team from the University of Arkansas:

Grant Drawve PhD, Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice and

Shaun Thomas PhD, Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice

Jyotishka Datta PhD, Assistant Professor in the Department of Mathematical Sciences

Thank you Dr. Kirk Leach, Assistant Professor in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and Master of Public Administration Capstone Instructor

Thank you Capstone Project Team Members:

Community Attitudes and Perceptions Towards Child Maltreatment: Analysis and Recommendations for Action

  • Justin Couch
  • Brandy Dailey
  • Kaylyn Presley Hager
  • Tierra Hutley
  • Hannah Rahn
  • Bernadette Gunn Rhodes

2020 Predict Align Prevent Data Sharing Initiative

  • Jessica Amos
  • Chris Fletcher
  • Markett Humphries
  • Ashley Lichtle
  • Roy Ragland
  • Andre’ Rogers
  • Paulette Smith
  • Hanna Windley

Thank you Brad Cazort, Director of the Arkansas Crime Information Center (ACIC), and

Andrew Collins III, Member of the Arkansas House of Representatives

for your work on House Bill 1848

A special thank you to Acxiom for generously donating their services to this project

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  • Daley D., Bachmann M., Bachmann B.A., Pedigo C., Bui. M.T., & Coffman J. (2016). Risk terrain modeling predicts child maltreatment. Child Abuse Neglect. 62:29-38. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.09.014. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213416301922
  • Predict Align Prevent (2019). Richmond, Virginia Technical Report. https://b9157c41-5fbe-4e28-8784-ea36ffdbce2f.filesusr.com/ugd/fbb580_2f1dda2ff6b84f32856bc95d802d6629.pdf

Predict-Align-Prevent does not endorse any particular program, service, or organization referenced in this report.

No organizational funds were used to support State of Arkansas House Bill 1848.

Visit www.Predict-Align-Prevent.org

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